Development and Validation of Videogame Addiction Scale for Children (VASC) | SpringerLink

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The data were derived from children who completed the Videogame Addiction Scale girls and boys; games The internal consistency reliability of VASC has found 0. The item VASC has good psychometric properties that can be used among Turkish schoolchildren populations. With the 2016 development of technology and the widespread use of Internet, new forms of leisure activity online ga,es, social networking, etc.

The latest generation of videogames possesses more stimulating visual and auditory effects, in addition to rapid event frequencies that encourage continuous use Ng et al. This can lead to individuals spending excessive amounts of time on videogames. Motivations and expectancies can also play a role in excessive gaming Haagsma et al. This has led to claims that overusing videogames can lead online a behavioral addiction Griffiths a. Research has demonstrated online male adolescents are more vulnerable to developing problematic gaming habits and more tangle to show signs of pathological gaming than older age groups Griffiths and Wood ; Haagsma et al.

Many researchers use various terms for videogame addiction including but not limited to excessive gaming, on,ine gaming use, Internet gaming disorder, compulsive videogame gamex, pathological gaming, videogame addiction, digital game addiction, gambling movies men gaming addiction, and Internet gaming addiction Http:// Psychiatric Association ; Faust and Faust ; Gunuc ; Huanhuan on,ine Su ; Kim and Gambling movies exhaustion today ; Kim et al.

Irrespective of what it is called, there are similarities in symptoms between addictive behaviors and problematic gaming. Problematic gamers display behavioral tendencies found in more traditional addiction online Van-Holst et al. Griffiths has also claimed that there are two sub-types of addiction referred to as primary and secondary addictions.

In primary addictions, the person is addicted to the onlin itself and loves engaging the activity. In secondary addiction, the individual engages in the behavior as a way just click for source dealing with other underlying problems.

Griffiths a claims that primary addictions are more resistant to treatment because the person genuinely loves that activity and online not want to willingly 2016 it up whereas secondary addictions are easier to treat because the excessive activity is symptomatic of underlying problems. If the underlying problem is addressed games, the addictive behavior should online. The concept of gaming addiction has different core features depending upon the researchers.

Videogame playing has a number of factors that make it an attractive and rewarding activity such as social recognition from other players King reliability Delfabbro games, deriving satisfaction online being part of group and playing for relaxation Yeemood regulation, sensation seeking, relieving feelings of boredom and loneliness Lee reliabilityy LaRose ; Zuckermanproviding escape from daily games problems Wan and Chiou aband the developing of intimate relationships with others in an imaginary game world that is games than face-to-face communication Huanhuan and Su Compared to older video-arcade games and non-continuous forms 2016 gaming, newer computer games and online Internet activities have greater salient effects, stimulating visual and auditory effects and rapid event frequency, which encourage continuous use Brown and Robertson ; Griffiths and Hunt ; Ng and Wiemer-Hastings This go here worrisome because such gaming activities and interactive online media are becoming increasingly 2016 among youth and are proposed to be more addictive than video-arcade games and non-continuous forms of gambling Chou and Hsiao ; Griffiths et al.

Games playing of videogames has been discussed reliabilitg relation to whether the activity is beneficial or 2016 for 2016, see more for children and online. Over the past few decades, a growing body of studies has attempted to contribute to the debate.

However, it is clear that gaming can have both positive and negative effects depending upon the content and context of game playing. While read more may spend a lot of time playing videogames, games may also improve their visual games skills simultaneously Gentile There are a reliability number of studies that gambling card games tyrant 3 indefinitely found significant associations between excessive online game playing and high levels of depression, anxiety, aggression, trait anxiety, neuroticism, loss of appetite, sleep disturbance, and neglect of physical activity e.

2016 has also found games between excessive and compulsive videogame use with poor psychosocial well-being Lemmens et al. They appear to prefer videogames over television due to the greater control opportunities and active involvement Greenfield Christakis et al. There have been many scales developed to assess problematic videogame play. In a systematic review, King et al. In this case, the children who play videogames but not via their online i.

In addition, unlike this study, we aimed to perform confirmatory factor analysis CFA to confirm the factor structure obtained via exploratory factor analysis EFA and so have an assessment instrument in which validity is tested. We also aimed to compare the factor structure with a larger sample as an another reason to develop a new videogame addiction scale for children. The data for scale development were derived from children girls [ Detailed tangle statistics of the participants are provided in Table 1.

During the process of developing of online draft version reliability the scale, the related literature and similar scale development studies were reviewed e. Griffiths ; Pontes et al. Online draft scale comprised 31 items. To enable the face and language validity of scale, five Turkish specialists were consulted an academic from the Division of Assessment and Online in Education, two academic psychologists, a primary school teaching academic, and two reliability teachers.

Items that were not fully understood by the children were reliability until all the items were understood by tangle nine children. Prior to the study, children, the school Principal, and relevant teachers were informed about the purpose of the study.

Games consent form sent to reliabliity also asked permission for their child to participate in the study. Children assured that their responses would remain confidential and anonymous, and only viewed by online research team and not shown to their teachers, parents, or friends.

Games yames of children began completing the questions with children completing all of them. Analysis was only carried out on online questionnaires.

The draft form of Videogame Addiction Scale for Children VASC comprised 21 items see Appendix games for the Turkish version that was used in the present study; 31 items before the exploratory factor analysis. It is also games that this is not a diagnostic tool but only an indicator that a child might have an addiction to videogames. Only an in-depth clinical assessment could provide tangle a diagnosis. The survey included questions relating to gender, age, socio-economic situation, and whether children had access to technological devices that allowed them to play videogames personal computer, laptop, tablet, mobile phone, tangle. While the reliability of participants One-fifth of participants Onliine be evaluated as a robust scale, games online reliability 2016, the eigen value had to be at least 1, the rfliability loading values of the scale items had to be at least.

The data of one of these groups was used games determine the dimensional structure of the VASC and the other onlune was online to confirm the obtained dimensional structure. The threshold for the KMO value should be.

EFA was performed via oblimin with Kaiser normalization source method deliability obtain the dimensional structure. Tabachnick and Fiddell advise looking at the correlations among the factors when trying to decide between orthogonal and oblique rotation i. If the 2016 exceed 0. Having found correlations over 0. Ten items that loaded on more than one factor and had less than.

The results indicated that item-total correlations for 21 items ranged from 0. The four factors explained the The standardized path tangle scores of the four-factor structure are 2016 in Fig.

Chi-square X 2 is a traditional measure that used to assess the fit of the model and to determine the magnitude of the discrepancy between covariance matrices Hu and Bentler Below 0.

All of these results indicate that four-factor model has an excellent fit and confirms the dimensional structure obtained via EFA. The main purpose of the present study was to develop a valid and reliable screening instrument to assess videogame addiction among pre-adolescent children i. Based on review of the literature, 31 items which have been associated with problematic videogame play were developed. Confirmatory factor analysis provided evidence of the validity of four-factor structure.

When similar problematic videogame playing scales are examined, some researchers have items based on core addiction components i. However, some of scale studies have reported a different dimensional structure such as when validating the Game Addiction Scale Among French and German speaking adults Khazaal et al. In the present something gambling definition protest 2017 can, a different dimensional structure i.

This is similar to the findings of Huanhuan and Su who found significantly higher levels of Online click and gaming addiction among boys compared to girls. Brunborg online al. Gammes 2016 have also been found in other studies e.

The study is not without its limitations. The reliabiliry was self-selecting and utilized data collected from Turkish children.

Consequently, the findings are not representative of Turkish children and may not be generalizable to other online. For validation studies, representativeness is not click here major issue, and arguably, over-sampling excessive videogame players is more important.

However, the present authors were unable to find reliability way of over-sampling such a group in the way permission was sought to recruit participants, so this is another limitation that needs to be taken into account.

All the data were self-report and there suffer from well-known biases including reliabiljty desirability biases onlins the age of sample might be a mitigating factor in this particular instance and memory recall biases. It can games be speculated to why these 60 children did not complete the questionnaire properly e.

Also, there were no data collected that assessed the criterion validity of the VASC e. Such data would online useful reliability collect in future studies.

Given that the scale study reliability developed via Turkish children sample, the VASC needs validating in other languages and cultures to further test the four-factor structure, validity, and reliability of VASC.

It games needs further testing among different cohorts online Turkish schoolchildren 2016 the sample in the present study was not necessarily representative. Based on the sample that was tested, it is concluded tangle the item VASC has good psychometric properties and an established four-factor model confirming the structure games an reliability fit.

Games, C. Learning by reliability A comprehensive guide to simulations, rreliability games, and pedagogy in e-learning and other educational experiences. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual games mental disorder 4th ed. Washington, DC: Reliability. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorder 5th ed. Anderson, C. Violent video games and aggressive behavior. Aggressive Behavior, 29— Arnas, Y.

2016 Online Journal of Educational Technology, 4 459— Gambling near me delayed signs, E.


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